PAI and Mortality in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

Study Summary – Mayo Clinic Proceedings

Personal Activity Intelligence and Mortality in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: the HUNT Study

The objective of this study was to test whether Personal Activity Intelligence (PAI), a personalized metric that measures and tracks physical activity (PA), is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with self-reported CVD, and to determine whether these associations change depending on whether contemporary PA recommendations are met.

A total of 3,133 patients with CVD were tracked from the date of participation (between January 1, 1984, and February 28, 1986) until the date of death or the end of follow-up (December 31, 2015). Mean age of participants was 67.7; with 64% men). Participants weekly PAI score was calculated and divided into four groups: 0, ≤50, 51-99, and ≥100.

Two questionnaires were used to identify individuals with CVD, and record participants’ sex, age, self-reported health and use of blood pressure-lowering medication. The questionnaires were also used to assess each participant's alcohol consumption, educational level, smoking status, and diabetes status. Trained nurses assess clinical information such as height, weight, resting heart rate, and blood pressure. Participants' BMI was calculated and using those numbers, participants were divided into four BMI categories: less than 18.5, 18.5 to 24.9, 25 to 29.9 and30 or greater. An additional questionnaire asking participants about physical activity was used to obtain a PAI score.

After a mean follow-up of 12.5 years (39,157 person-years), there were 2,936 deaths (94%),including 1,936 deaths from CVD. Participants with weekly PAI scores of 100 or more had between 24% to 36% lower risk of mortality from CVD and all causes, respectively, compared with the inactive group. Participants had similar risk reductions associated with their weekly PAI scores, regardless of following contemporary PA recommendations or not.

To read the full study, click here.

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