Temporal Changes in PAI and Mortality

Study Summary – Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases

Temporal Changes in a Novel Metric of Physical Activity Tracking (Personal Activity Intelligence) and Mortality: the HUNT Study, Norway

The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the association between change in weekly Personal Activity Intelligence (PAI) scores estimated 10 years apart and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes. Weekly PAI scores assessed at a single point in time were found to associate with lower risk of premature CVD mortality in the general health population. However, before this study was conducted, the associations between long-term longitudinal changes in weekly PAI scores and mortality had not been explored.

The study included participants aged 20 years and older from Norway who participated in both the first and second HUNT surveys. All participants filled out detailed questionnaires about health and lifestyle and attended clinical examinations for both HUNT surveys. Of the 77,212 subjects who participated in HUNT1, 47,313 also participated in HUNT2. Excluded from this new study were: 5,006 participants with self-reported CVD, 3,537 subjects with somatic disease (moderate or high), 1,677 subjects with motion impairment (moderate or high), and 12,213 subjects with missing values on covariates. The remaining 24,880 participants were included in the study.

Trained nurses performed clinical measurements including; height, weight, blood pressure (BP), and laboratory measurements, such as non-fasting serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Body Mass Index (BMI)was categorized into four groups, according to the World Health Organization’s BMI classifications.

To assess the association between continuous change in PAI and risk of mortality from CVD and all-causes, the differences between obtained PAI in HUNT1 and HUNT2 were estimated, and categorized into groups of 30 PAI to allow for the assessment of the trend. As previous physical fitness has been associated with risk of mortality, researchers assessed linear trends in different sub-groups of obtained PAI in HUNT1 (0 PAI; 1-50 PAI; 51-99 PAI; ≥100 PAI), using a multi adjusted model.

In this prospective study of healthy men and women, researchers found that an increase in PAI over a 10-year period was associated with lower risk of mortality, and that participants with a weekly PAI score of ≥100 at both time points had the lowest risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.

To read the full study, click here.

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